考研英语语法

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考研英语语法简单句1.长难句2.长难句分析3. 简单句的核心1.1.简单句的拓展1.2.简单句的核心构成1.简单句的核心变化2.主谓主谓宾主谓双宾主谓宾补主系表谓语动词的核心变化主语、宾语、表语的核心变化谓语动词的时态变化谓语动词的情态变化谓语动词的语态变化谓语动词的否定变化谓语动词的强调变化一般过去时一般现在时一般将来时过去将来时过去完成时现在完成时将来完成时现在完成进行时did (was/were)do/does (is/are)will do/be going to dowould do/(was/were) going to dohad donehave/has donewill have donehave been doing情态动词情态动词表示情态情态动词表示推测情态动词的变体情态动词表示情绪态度结构:情态动词+do其中,情态动词没有人称变化,时态的变化有限must "必须"can/could “能够,可以”will/would "愿意,将要"may/might "可以,可能"Scientists must communicate their message to the public in a compassionate, understandable way...Similarly, the physical act of laughter could improve mood.The first draft will appear on the page.Such bodily rection might conceivably help moderate the effects of psychological stress.must → can/could will/would may/might → can't/couldn'tThe details may be unknowable.情态动词+have done/be doingNow something similar could be happening in the oceans.主动语态:主语与谓语动词主动关系被动语态:主语与谓语动词被动关系被动语态被动语态与时态相结合被动语态与情态相结合结构:be donebe 表示被动的时间与主语的单复数done 表示被动的动作must be/can be/will be/may be等Those first few days should be spent looking for work.For example,lighting was always changed on a sunday.Our subway trains are controllled by tireless robotdrivers.The study of law has been recognized for conturies as a basic intellectual discipline in European universities.实义动词变否定助动词和情态动词否定助动词 do/does/did+not+动词原形American professors did not possess one.助动词和情态动词+notWith other audiences you mustn't attempt to cut in with human.助动词do/does/did + 动词原形Although the figure may vary,analysts do agree on another matter.名词、代词作主宾表非谓语动词doing作主宾非谓语动词to do作主宾表并列多个主宾表The process is natural selection.非谓语动词doing作主语非谓语动词doing作宾语Americans stoped taking prosperity for granted.不及物动词doing作主语(系动词三单形式)及物动词doing sth/sb 作主语加入形容词、副词、介词短语修饰doing sth/sb作主语Broadcasting his ambition was "very much my descision"......laughing probably has little influence on physical fitness.Merely expanding the orchestra's repertoive will not be enough.非谓语动词to do作主语非谓语动词to do作宾语非谓语动词to do作表语... to decide is to kill off all possibilities but one.后置用法It is painful to read these round about accounts today.Fortunately,the White House is starting to pay attention.主谓宾补后置用法The brain finds it best to keep smell receptors available for unfamiliar and emergency signals.The trick is to direct these funds better.and/both...and.../not only...but also...or/either...or...neither...nor...today's immigration is neither at unprecedented levels nor resistant to assimilation.Surveys can cover a single large settlement or entire ladscapes.New skills and unfamiliar business models are needed too.词性的拓展成分的拓展限定词形容词、副词介词短语用于限定名词,包括冠词(a,an,the)、数词、名词所有格The roughly 20 million in habitants of these nations looked hopefully to the future.形容词修饰名词副词修饰动词、句子、其他的形容词副词Similary,the physical act of laughter could improve mood.The idea seems promising,and Rosenbery is a perceptive observer.形容词、副词作修饰成分形容词、副词的三种比较级别原级比较级比较级as + adj/adv原形(比较的内容) + as + 比较的对象和 ... 相比一样的 ...Few people are as fertile as in the past.adj/adv比较(比较的内容) + (than 比较的对象)(和 ... 相比) 更 ...通常用作两者之间的比较Rich economies are also less dependent on oil than they were,and so less sensitive to swing in the oil price.adj/adv最高级(比较的内容) + (介词短语 表示比较的范围)(... 范围内) 最 ...通常用于三者或三者以上的比较Some of the biggest developments will be in medicine...表示时间的介词表示地点的介词其他用法的介词Journalistic tastes had changed long before his death.Since the days of Aristotle,a search for universal principles has characterized the scientific enterprise.For years,executives and headhunters have adhered to the rule.Behind the scenes, they have been taking aim at someone else:the accounting standard-setters.The link between dreams and emotions show up among the patients in Cartwright's clinic.They perpetuate the myth of the lone geniusIt also sent a clear message to the outside world about his aspirations.Despite these factors,many social scientists seem reluctant to tackle such problems.非谓语动词作定语、状语同位语插入语非谓语动词非谓语动词作定语非谓语动词作状语修饰限定名词,逻辑主语为名词1.不作谓语的动词2.主语+谓语+非谓语3.doing/done/to do(单独出现) doing 表示主动、done 表示被动、to do表示目的修饰限定句子,逻辑主语为句子主语It also raises questions concerning "values".Enraged by Entergy's behavior,the Vermont Senate voted 26 to 4 last year against allowing an extension.同位语插入语解释说明前面名词(同一件事)Its current leader,Ed Miliband,owes his position to votes from public-sector unions.主谓结构作插入语副词作插入语介词短语作插入语No one,he submits,could have written it without processing some power of reasoning.These facts,however,have previously been thought unrelated.Justice Antonin Scalia,for example,appeared at political event.并列句2.1.复合句2.2.特殊句式2.3.并列句的构成并列句的省略表示顺接的并列连词表示转折的并列连词表示选择的并列连词表示因果的并列连词The finanical fallout has begun,and the politied fallout may not be far behind.Almost all our major problems involve human behavior,and the cannot be solved by physical and biological technology alone.Naturally he will try to borrow money at a low rate of interest,but loans of this kind are not frequently obtainable.Either Entergy never really intended to live by those commitments,or it simply didn't foresee what would happed next.Reporters tend to be part of a broadly defined social and cultural elite,so their work tends to reflect the conventional values of this elite.并列句独有特点,相同的部分可以省略,余下的部分保持不变The program keeps track of your progress and provides detailed feedback on your performance and improvement.名词性从句定语从句状语从句名词性从句指该从句在整个句子中充当着名词的角色宾语从句表语从句主语从句同位语从句宾语从句的含义宾语从句的写法宾语从句的位置一个句子作宾语,将其放置到主句中The fossil record shows that may species have endured for millions of years.陈述句变宾语从句特殊疑问句变宾语从句一般疑问句变宾语从句陈述句变宾语从句前加that(that不作成分,可省略),建议都加上特殊疑问句变宾语从句要调整语序(主语提前),不需要加that一般疑问句变宾语从句先调整语序,再加连接词if/whether,首选whetherDr.Worm acknowledges that these figures are conservative.We suddenly can't remember where we put the keys just a moment ago.I don't know if other clients are going to abandon me,too.三种位置非谓语动词+从句多个宾语从句宾语从句后置,it形式宾语动宾介宾形宾动单宾动双宾及物动词+从句及物动词+人+从句...scientists believe that intelligence can expand and fluctuate according to mental effort....users could tell advertisers that they did not want to be followed.介词+宾语从句...those differences are swamped by how well each person "encodes" the information.形容词+宾语从句...he felt certain that he never could have succeeded with mathematics.doing + 从句to do + 从句Neither of these patterns is borne out by the analysis,suggesting that the structures of languages are lineage-specific and not governed by universals.You might even be tempted to assume that humanity has little future to look forward to.To filter out what is unique from what is shared might enable us to understand how complex cultural behavior arose and what guides it in evolutionary or cognitive terms.条件:1、长宾语;2、主谓宾补的句式That kind of activity makes it less likely that the court's decisious will be accepted as impartial judgments.表语从句的含义表语从句的写法表语从句的位置一个句子作表语,放在系动词后(常用be)The clear message is that we should get moving to protect ourselves.同宾语从句(that不做成分,不可省略)Part of the problem is that the justices are not bound by an ethics code.位于系动词后非谓语动词+表语从句For Williams,these activities become what he calls "electronic morphine".Human nature being what it is,most people stick with default settings.主语从句的含义主语从句的写法主语从句的位置主语从句的考研模板一个句子作主语,放在主句中What's needed is a package deal.同宾语从句(that不作成分,不可省略,表达是否技能用whether)That the seas are being overfished has been know for years.位于句首,谓语动词之前位于句尾,it作形式主语What is needed is a technology of behavior.It did not matter what was done in the experiment.It is done + 主语从句(表达人们对一件事的观点看法)This year,it was proposed that the system be changed.同位语从句的含义同位语从句的写法同位语从句的位置一个句子作同位语(同位语:解释说明名词)同宾语从句(that不作成分,不可省略,常用that+陈述句)位于抽象名词后Writing in the last year of his life,he expressed the opinion that in two or three respects his mind had changed during the preceding twenty or thirty years.Evidence that the lovelife program preduces lasting changes is limited and mixed.Part of the fame of Allen's book is its contention that "circumstances do not make a person,they reveal him".定语从句的含义定语从句的写法定语从句的分类定语从句的补充一个句子作定语,修饰限定名词,位置在所修饰名词后。定语从句所修饰的名词称为先行词,引出定语从句的词称为引导词(关系词)Law is a discipline which encourages responsible judgement.主句 + 先行词 + 关系词 + 陈述句先行词为事/物,关系词选择which/that先行词为人,关系词选择who/whom/that(whom指人仅能作宾语)先行词为人/物,表示人或物的所有格关系,关系词选择whose先行词为时间,关系词选择when先行词为地点,关系词选择where先行词为原因,关系词选择whyFurthermore,the legal system and the events which occur within it are primary subjects for journalists.Most archaeological sites,however,are discovered by archaeologists who have set out to look for them.On display here are various fantasy elements whose reference,at some basic level,seems to be the natural world.It is difficult to the point of impossibility for the average reader under the age of forty to imagine a time when high-quality arts criticism could be found in most big-city newspapers.In dreams, a window opens into a world where logic is suspended and dead people speak.The other reason why costs are so high is the restrictive guild-like ownership structure of the business.If it is trying to upset Google,which relies almost wholly on advertising,it has chosen an indirect method.This trend,which we believe is still in its infancy,effectively began with retailer and travel providers such as airline and hotels.限定性定语从句与同位语从句的区别特殊的非限定定语从句(修饰整句话)共同点n + 从句不同点One possible response is for classical performers to program attractive new music that is not yet available on record.关系词仅能使用which(句中,句尾),as(句首,句中,句尾)Most fisheries are well below that,which is a bad way to do bussiness.状语从句的含义状语从句的写法状语从句的位置状语从句的分类一个句子作状语,表达描述性信息主句 + 从属连词 + 完整的陈述句从属连词不作成分,只表示逻辑关系When the United States built its industrial infrastructure,it didn't have the capital to do so.As the economy picks up,opportunities will abound for aspiring leaderes.Opportunities will abound for aspiring leaders,as the economy picks up.Opportunities,as the economy picks up,will abound for aspiring leaders.时间状语从句地点状语从句原因状语从句结果状语从句目的状语从句条件状语从句让步状语从句比较状语从句方式状语从句从属连词:when、while、as、before、after、since、until、as soon as、by the timeAs the brain fades,we refer to these occurrences as "senior moments".从属连词:whereThe traditional rule was it's safer to stay where you are,but that's been fundamentally inverted.从属连词:because、since、as、now that(显而易见的原因)Our legal system was designed to set law apart from politics precisely because they are so closely tied.从属连词:such + n + that / so + adj/adv + that (太...所以)so that (所以)Indeed,homelessness has reached such proportions that local governments can't possibly cope.Transitions should connect one paragraph to the next so that there are no abrupt or confusing shifts.从属连词:so that + 情态动词in order thatIn December 2010 America's Federal Trade Commission(FTC) propsed adding a "do not track"(DNT) option to internet browsers,so that users could tell advertisers that they did not want to be followed.从属连词:if、unless、as long as、onceOnce a discovery daim becomes public, the discoverer receives intellectual credit.明让步,暗转折。表达:尽管...(但是)...从属连词:although、though、even though、even if、whileAlthough sadness also precades tears,evidence suggests that emotions can flow from muscular responses.从属连词:than、as...as...从属连词:as、as ifDuring most of his walking life he will take his code for granted,as the businessman takes his ethics.Rich economies are also less dependent on oil than they were.倒装强调虚拟主谓倒装,主语和谓语动词顺序颠倒全部倒装部分倒装将句中的谓语动词全部置于主语前将句中的谓语动词的一部分置于主语前结构相当于变一般疑问句There be + n : 有,表达客观存在There be + n + 介词短语(地点/方位) : 有什么在哪里There may be more matches in the databaseThere is no gap between mind and matter否定副词或词组位于句首Only 位于句首虚拟条件句省略ifNot only did they develop such a device but by the trun of the millennium they had also managed to embed it in a world wide system.only位于句首时,句子要部分倒装虚拟条件句省略if,从句要部分倒装,主句不变But had Entergy kept its word,that debate would be beside the point.Only recently did linguists begin the serious study of languages that were very different from their own.强调句的构成强调句的变化It is + 强调的部分 + that + 句子余下的部分不能强调形容词和动词It is/was + 强调的部分 + that/who + 句子余下的部分It is not by chance that the Funeral March is not the last movement of the Eroica Symphony.It is they,not America,who have become anti-intellectual.It was not until the 19th centry that the newspaper became the dominant pre-electronic medium.虚拟的概述if虚拟条件句名词性从句的虚拟什么是虚拟如何使用虚拟虚拟用在哪里虚拟是谓语动词的一种特殊变化,通过改变位于动词的时态,可以表达虚拟。if 虚拟条件句虚拟既非真实① 与真实情况不符② 可能性没有或很小名词性从句的虚拟If he had played last season,however,he would have been one of 42.If circumstances always determind the lift and prospects of people,then humanity would never have progressed.主句中出现表示”建议、命令、要求”的词,从句要虚拟谓语动词用"(should) + 动词原形"European ministers instantly demanded that the International Accounting Standard Board(IASB) do likewise.This year,it was proposed that the system be changed.基本结构的长难句分析3.1.特殊结构的长难句分析3.2.断开长难句简化长难句标点连接词分析主谓逗号冒号分号逗号可以用来断开句子,且必须有连接词冒号连接后面的句子表达进一步的解释说明分号表示并列关系The idea is intuitively compelling,but it doesn't explain how ideas actually spread.It's hard to imagine that many people are dumb enough to want children just because Reese and Angelina make it look so Moreover,average overall margins are higher in wholesale than in retail;wholesale demand from the food services sector is growing quickly as more Europeans eat out more often;and changes in the competitive dynamics of this fragmented industry are at last making it feasible for wholesalers to consoldate.开始:并列连词:and、but、or (用来连接并列句)从属连词:because、if、while、although、as (用来引导状语从句)关系词:that、how、wh-(what、who、whom、which、whose、when、where、why)结束:标点下一个连接词第二个谓语动词前从句结束于标点从句结束于下一个连接词从句结束于第二个谓语动词前But take a longer view and there is a surprising amount that we can say with considerable assurance.The hardest task that television asks of anyone is to turn the power off after he has turned it on.One of the reasons why the appointment came as such a surprise,however,is that Gilbert is comparatively little known.主谓主谓,则后面的为从句主主谓谓,则中间的为从句The IASB says it does not want to act without overall planning,...In those far-off days,it was taken for granted that the critics of major papers would write in detail and at length about the events they covered.When the court deals with social policy decisions,the law it shapes is inescapably political...The way consumers now approach the process of making purchase decisions means that marketing's impact stems from a broad range of factors beyond conventional paid media.① 定位谓语动词② 去修饰找核心核心:主语、谓语、宾语、表语、补语非核心:形容词、副词、介词短语、非谓语动词、同位语、插入语The decision of the New York Philharmonic to hire Alan Gilbert as its next music director has been the talk of the classical-music world ever since the sudden announcement of his appointment in 2009.During the late 1990s,national spending on social sciences and the humanities as a percentage of all research and development funds -- including government,higher education,non-profit and corporate -- varied from around 4% to 25%;...分裂结构嵌套结构平行结构插入式的分裂结构从句后移式的分裂结构同位语、插入语状语从句Bob Liodice,the chief executive of the Association of National Advertisers,says consumers will be worse off if the industry cannot collect information about their preferences.Two of the three objecting Justices—Samuel Alito and Clarence Thomas—agreed with this Constitutional logic but disagreed about which Arizona rules conflicted with the federal statute.A sacred place of peace,however crude it may be,is a distinctly human need...Yet these creatures are members of the biotic community and,if its stability depends on its integrity,they are entitled to continuance.Contrary to the descriptions on record,no systematic evidence was found that levels of productivity were related to changes in lighting.But as the Nuclear Regulatory Commission(NRC) reviews the company's application,it should keep in mind what promises from Entergy are worth.It hoped they would learn how shop-floor lighting affected workers' productivity.The rough guide to marketing success used to be that you got what you paid for.名词(词组)的平行并列动词的平行结构:谓语动词、非谓语动词介词短语的平行并列句子的平行并列The English,the Germans,the Dutch and the French were investing in Britain's former colony.All theories,however,are tentative and are subject to criticism.The process sweeps from hyperactive America to Europe and reaches the emerging countries with unsurpassed might....he advocated freedom of thought and of personal expression.So disciplines acquire a monopoly not just over the production of knowledge,but also over the production of producers of knowledge.According to accounts of the experiments,their hourly output rose when lighting was increased,but also when it was dimmed.The behavioral sciences have been slow to change partly because the explanatory items often seem to be directly observed and partly because other kinds of explanations have been hard to find.补充如果连接词前后的不是句子(即没有谓语动词),则连接词无效,不需要断开强调句和主语从句的区别1、还原,去掉"it is ... that ...",余下的部分可以还原成一个完整的句子为强调,反之为主语从句。2、"it is ... that ..."中间为形容词或动词,则为主语从句。as作为几种状语从句的比较注意事项定语从句的关系词每一个都必须作成分,包括thatwhom指人,只能在作宾语时使用when/where/why 引导定语从句时,前面的先行词必须与之匹配关系词在定语从句中作宾语时,都可以省略特殊关系词 whereby = by whichThese rules say they must value some assets at the price a third party would pay.The definition also excludes the majority of teachers,despite the fact that teaching has traditionally been the method whereby many intellectuals earn their living.共同点① 从句都是陈述句语气② 从句前都有连接词③ 从句缺什么连接词加什么谓语动词有实义无实义不及物动词 vi(主语能独立完成)及物动词 vt(主语不能独立完成)主谓Smaller species survived.主谓宾主谓双宾主谓宾补They gave justices permanent positions.Everybody loves a fat pay rise.You always keep your eyes open.(连)系动词主系表